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Bridge, a card game that originated from whist through the earlier variants bridge whist and auction bridge. .As mentioned above, one suit can be designated as the trump suit (i.e., any card in that suit may be taken by any card in any other suit); however, the way in which that suit is designated (or the way the deal will be played without trumps) varies between the various bridge games as explained below.
Over the years, bridge whist, auction bridge, and contract bridge have been the most popular intellectual card games in English-speaking countries.Bridge, the third game of the series, was a global phenomenon and in some ways gave rise to a social phenomenon unprecedented in gaming history.The World Bridge Federation, which organizes international tournaments for more serious competitors, is affiliated with numerous national federations that also play casual bridge around the world.One of its largest affiliated members is the American Contract Bridge League (ACBL), which has nearly 160,000 members.
With the arrival of personal computers and the Internet, new ways of teaching and playing were created.Internet sites do more than just host casual games. They also hold tournaments recognized by ACBL and WBF, where participants can earn international master points.
The bridge games
.When it was introduced to New York in 1893 and to London in 1894, it almost immediately replaced whist in the card rooms of men's clubs, and before 1900 it was the favorite diversion of fashionable mixed gatherings.From 1907 to 1928, auction bridge became the most widespread cardgame known to mankind after replacing bridge whist with almost equal speed.The auction bridge was replaced by the contract bridge about 1930 and began to die out with a following of at least 15 million.
Like whist, bridge has four players in two partnerships, each given 13 cards.There is, however, always a trump suit in whist, determined by turning up the last card dealt to the dealer, and each player plays his own hand.Bridge whist incorporates several innovations including: the selection of the trump suit by the dealer or dealer's partner after seeing the dealers' hands; the option of playing at no trump; the exposed dummy (the partner's hand), which is played by the dealer; a new method of scoring; and the right to double (the scoring values).
The dealer in bridge whist could declare a trump or play without one after the cards were dealt, or he could transfer this duty to his partner.
After the dealer led, the player to his left led.A dummy is the supporter of the dealer and places his hand face up on the table in front of him. Dealer and dummy each play two cards, from each hand, in turn.Otherwise play was the same as whist.
.First to score 30 points or more won, and a brand new game began.Win two games and a bonus of 100 points will go to the first side.
Auction bridge features are that all four players bid for the right to name the trump suit and the high bidder (not necessarily the dealer) declares the hand and deals it to the dummy.Among other changes, the auction bridge procedure changed frequently and continuously.
Only the scoring distinguishes contract bridge from auction bridge in its mechanics.In auction bridge, each odd trick won by declarer's side counts toward game outcome, regardless of whether it contracted to win the trick.Unless declarer's side has previously contracted to win those tricks, odd tricks won by declarer cannot contribute toward game.In contract bridge, the value of tricks, penalties, and premiums is higher than in auction bridge, and large bonuses are awarded for making slam contracts.For scoring instructions, refer to the following.